WAN networks

Quadrimestre 4 - Networks and telecommunications option

36 hours

Coordinator : BIS

Teacher : BIS

General course description

The course presents the WAN concepts and their fundaments, the different solutions for LAN interconnections as well as access methods to these networks.

The laboratory assignements enable the students to become familiar with the communication protocols using protocol simulators and analysers as well as working on a WAN network.

Learning basic skills

First-year courses:

  • Introduction to networks
  • Communication protocols
  • Signal and transmission

Course Aims

  • Understand how data, voice and video are transmitted in a WAN
  • Understand how a WAN interacts with a LAN network
  • Understand the differents access technologies in WAN
  • Define WAN protocols and technologies adapted to current and future applications, i.e. current backbone networks and the information highways to be.

Course Outline

Chapter 1: Introduction to WAN (basic concepts)

  • Differences between a transmissison layer, a thread layer and a WAN circuit layer
  • Anisochronous vs. synchronous
  • Anisochronous vs. isochronous
  • Analog networks vs. digital networks
  • Encoding and compression: PCM, ADPCM, CELP
  • FDM, TDM and STDM
  • Digital transmission: PDH/SDH
  • Layers/bundles changeover
  • CONS and CLNS networks
  • X25 - F/R - ATM: SVC vs. PVC and QOS

Chapter 2: WAN fundaments

  • WAN vs. LAN/MAN
  • Signaling in a WAN: CAS, CCS, V5 - V5.2, CCITT#7 or SS#7, P-NNI
  • Traffic management and WAN - bandwidth and access rates
  • WAN topology: meshed, hierarchical, stellar, in circle
  • WAN OSI standards
    • Function of the different layers
    • Transport and application layers: protocols
    • PSTN, PDN, RNIS, Frame Relay, B-ISDN, SDH/SONET, ATM
  • Internet standards
    • Addressing and multicasting IP

Chapter 3: Access technologies WAN

  • Modem
    • Standards, transmission rates, duplex capacity, modes, media
  • Wire-line access technologies
    • Local copper loop: xDSL, HFC, FTTF, FTTC, FTTH
  • Wireless access technologies

Chapter 4: Frame Relay Technology

  • Trames Frame Relay : UNI LAPF/Q.922
  • Routing Frame Relay & QOS : CIR, Bc, Be
  • Extra services Frame Relay: - Multicasting, flow control, Voice Over Frame Relay (VoFr)

Chapter 5: ATM Technology

  • Cells UNI ATM and AAL PDU's
  • Routing ATM : P-NNI & QOS : Traffic contracts (CBR, VBR, ABR, UBR)
  • Extra services ATM: CES,VTOA, MPOA

Chapter 6: IP Technology

  • IP Datagrams
  • Routing IP & QOS : RSVP, DiffServ, Ipv6
  • Extra IP services
    • VPN with SLAs and security
    • Voice over (VoIP)
    • IP-to-ATM Interworking: MPLS

Chapter 7: WAN Internetworking and equipment

  • LAN to WAN interworking:
    • Bridging, routing, encapsulation ou tunnelling
  • WAN to WAN interworking
    • Protocol conversion techniques in IWF
    • PSTN-to-ISDN-to-ATM IWF, LL-to-ATM IWF
    • X.25-to-F/R IWF, F/R-to-ATM IWF

Chapter 8: new solutions in WAN

  • IP over SDH and WDM
  • ATM vs. IP : MPLS
  • Information highways
  • Optical multiplexing, photonics or Lambda changeover


  • Use of a network simulator
  • Use of a protocol analyzer
  • Analysis of a HDLC protocol and its derivative versions
  • Protocol analysis: X25-RNIS -Frame Relay-ATM
  • Interaction: levels 1, 2, and 3
  • Analysis of the protocol TCP/IP
  • Demonstration and use of a WAN


  • Tanenbaum, Réseaux, Dunod
  • Introduction aux infrastructures WAN, Telindus High-tech Institute